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STEM CELL GENOMICS

Stem cell genomics analyzes the genomes of stem cells. Currently, this field is rapidly expanding due to the dramatic decrease in the cost of sequencing genomes. The study of stem cell genomics has wide reaching implications in the study of stem cell biology and possible therapeutic usages of stem cells. Application of research in this field could lead to drug discovery and information on diseases by the molecular characterization of the pluripotent stem cell through DNA and transcriptome sequencing and looking at the epigenetic changes of stem cells and subsequent products. One step in that process is single cell phenotypic analysis, and the connection between the phenotype and genotype of specific stem cells. While current genomic screens are done with entire populations of cells, focusing in on a single stem cell will help determine specific signaling activity associated with varying degrees of stem cell differentiation and limit background due to heterogeneous populations.

INDUCED PLURIPOTENCY

Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells. The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. He was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize along with Sir John Gurdon "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent."

Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise in the field of regenerative medicine. Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease.

The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell. However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction (or at least manipulation) of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use. Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been feasible to create patient-matched embryonic stem cell lines.

INTRAUTERINE TRANSFERS OF STEM CELLS FOR CONGENITAL ANOMALIES

The clinical burden imposed by the collective group of monogenic disorders demands novel therapies that are effective at achieving phenotypic cure early in the disease process before the development of permanent organ damage. This is important for lethal diseases and also for non-perinatally lethal conditions that are characterised by severe disability with little prospect of postnatal cure. Where postnatal treatments are limited to palliative options, intrauterine stem-cell therapies may offer the potential to arrest pathogenesis in the early undamaged fetus. Intrauterine stem-cell transplantation has been attempted for a variety of diseases.

THREE DIMENSIONAL GRAFTING

Scientists are growing organs in laboratory by three dimensional grafting, the scaffold is used from the donor and coated with patients own cells.

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